womens health

The Impact of Aging on NAD+ and Its Effect on Male and Female Fertility

As we age, our bodies undergo many changes. One such change is the decline in levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a molecule that plays a critical role in energy metabolism and DNA repair. Recent research has shown that this decline in NAD+ levels can have a significant impact on male and female fertility.

Male Fertility

In males, declining levels of NAD+ can lead to decreased sperm motility, lower sperm count, and poor sperm quality. A study conducted by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania found that supplementing with nicotinamide riboside (NR), a precursor to NAD+, improved sperm motility in aging mice. The researchers suggest that NR supplementation may also be beneficial for improving human male fertility.

Female Fertility

In females, declining levels of NAD+ can lead to reduced egg quality and quantity as well as increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities in eggs. A study published in the journal Cell Reports found that increasing NAD+ levels through supplementation with NR improved egg quality and increased the number of viable embryos produced by older female mice.

Future Advances

While these findings are promising, more research is needed to determine if similar results will be seen in humans. Additionally, there are still many unanswered questions about how exactly NAD+ affects fertility at the molecular level.

However, advances are being made towards understanding these mechanisms. Researchers have identified several enzymes involved in regulating cellular metabolism pathways linked to NAD+. These enzymes could serve as potential targets for developing new therapies aimed at boosting fertility by increasing cellular concentrations of this vital molecule.

Conclusion

Aging-related declines in NAD+ may play an important role in both male and female infertility. While more research is needed to fully understand how this molecule impacts reproductive health at the molecular level, current studies suggest that interventions aimed at increasing NAD+ levels could be a promising avenue for improving fertility in aging individuals.

References:

– Mills KF, Yoshida S, Stein LR, Grozio A, Kubota S, Sasaki Y et al. Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice. Cell Metab 2016;24:795–806.

– Imai SI and Guarente L. NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends Cell Biol 2014;24:464–471.

– Zhang H, Ryu D, Wu Y et al. NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances lifespan in mice. Science 2016;352:1436–1443.

– Gomes AP, Price NL Ling AJY et al Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging Cell 2013;155:1624–1638

– Elhassan YS Kluckova K Fletcher RS Schmidt MS Garten A Doig CL Cartwright DM Oakey LA Burley CV Jenkinson N Wilson M Lucas SJ Akerman I Seabright A Lai YC Tennant DA Nightingale P Wallis GA Manolopoulos KN Brenner C Philp A Lavery GG Frezza C The energy sensor AMPK regulates T cell metabolic adaptation and effector responses in vivo Immunity 2021 Feb 9:S1074-7613(21)00020-X doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2021.01.007 PMID:33607097

– Ratajczak J Joffraud M Trammell SA Rasich M Moniatte M Deplewski D Haigis MC Auwerx J NRK1 controls nicotinamide mononucleotide and nicotinamide riboside metabolism in mammalian cells Nat Commun 2016;7:13103.

– Zhang H Ryu D Wu Y Gariani K Wang X Luan PDA D’Amico D Ropelle ER Lutolf MP Aebersold R Schoonjans K Menzies KJ Auwerx J NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances lifespan in mice Science 2016;352:1436–1443.

– Mills KF Yoshida S Stein LR Grozio A Kubota S Sasaki Y Redpath P Migaud ME Apte RS Uchida K Yoshino J Imai SI Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice Cell Metab 2016;24:795–806.

– Frederick DW Davis JG Davila A Agarwal B Michan S Puchowicz MA Nakamaru-Ogiso E Baur JA Increasing NAD synthesis in muscle via Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase is not sufficient to promote oxidative metabolism or improve insulin sensitivity Cell Metab 2015;22(5):739–744.

*Note: this site does not provide medical opinions or diagnosis and should not be relied upon instead of receiving medical attention from a licensed medical professional.

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